UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

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Previous: 12.3 Using the Requests:  An OverviewChapter 12
Nroff and Troff
Next: 12.5 Group Summary of Requests

12.4 Default Operation of Requests

Nroff/troff initializes the formatting environment. For example, unless you reset the line length, nroff/troff uses 6.5 inches. Most requests can change the default environment, and those that can are listed in the table below. The second column lists the initial or default value in effect before the request is used. If no initial value applies, a hyphen (-) is used. The third column shows the effect if a request's optional argument is not used. Here, a hyphen is used if the request doesn't accept an argument or if the argument is required.

RequestInitialIf NoDescription
.adJustifyPrevious adjustAdjust margins.
.afLowercase arabic-Assign a format to a register.
.am-End call with ..Append to a macro.
.bdOff-Embolden font.
.c2;;Set no-break control character.
.cc..Set control character.
.ceOffCenter one lineCenter lines.
.ch-Turn off trapChange trap position.
.csOff-Set constant-width spacing.
.cu01 lineContinuous underline/italicize.
.da-End the diversionDivert text and append to a macro.
.de-End macro with ..Define a macro.
.di-End the diversionDivert text to a macro.
.dt-Turn off trapSet a diversion trap.
.ec\\Set escape character.
.eoOn-Turn off escape character.
.ev0Prev. environmentChange environment.
.fcOffOffSet field delimiter and pad character.
.fiFill-Fill lines.
.fp1 = R-Mount font (on positions 1-4).
2 = I
3 = B
4 = S
.ftRomanPrevious fontSet font.
.hc\%\%Set hyphenation character.
.hyMode 1Previous modeSet hyphenation mode.
.ig-End with ..Suppress (ignore) text in output.
.in0Previous indentIndent.
.it-Turn off trapSet a trap for input line counting.
.lc.NoneSet leader character.
.lgOnOnLigature mode.
.ll6.5"Prev. line lengthSet line length.
.lsSingle-spacePrevious modeSet line spacing.
.lt6.5"Prev. title lengthSet length of title.
.mc-Turn offSet the margin character.
.mk-InternalMark vertical position.
.naAdjust-Don't adjust margins.
.ne-One vertical lineKeep lines on same page if there's room.
.nfFill-Don't fill lines.
.nhOn-Turn of hyphenation.
.nmOffOffLine-numbering mode.
.nn-Number one lineDon't number lines.
.nsSpace mode-Enable no-space mode.
.nx-End of fileGo to a file.
.pc%OffSet page character.
.pl11"11"Set page length.
.pnPage 1-Set page number.
.po0 (nroff)Previous offsetChange page offset.
26/27" (troff)
.ps10Prev. point sizeSet point size.
.rd-Ring bellRead from the terminal.
.rt-InternalReturn to marked vertical place.
.sp-One vertical lineOutput blank spacing.
.ss12/36 em-Set character spacing.
.sv-One vertical lineSave (store) spacing.
.ta.5" (troff)-Define tab settings.
8 em (nroff)
.ti0-Indent next line.
.tm-NewlinePrint a message, then continue.
.ufItalicItalicSet font for underlining.
.ul01 lineUnderline/italicize.
.vs1/6" (nroff)Previous valueSet vertical spacing for lines.
12 pts (troff)

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12.3 Using the Requests: An OverviewBook Index12.5 Group Summary of Requests

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